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Candide

Authors

Original Authors

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Book
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Lyrics
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Music
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Additional Lyrics
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Source Material

Later Contributors

This list represents writers who contributed to revisions, etc. following the original production.

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Book: Concert Adaptation
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Book Revisions
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Book Revisions
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Book Adaptation
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Book
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Adaptation
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Book: New Version
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Book: New Adaptation
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Additional Lyrics
Genre: Operetta

Score

Click on the title for info on the song.

Original score

  • The Best of All Possible Worlds (i)
    • aka Ensemble: The Best of All Possible Worlds [no note]
    • aka The Best of All Possible Worlds (Marriage) [no note]
    • aka The Best of All Possible Worlds: Marriage [no note]
  • Oh, Happy We
    • aka Duet: Oh Happy We [Title used in 1959 London production]
    • aka Duet: Oh, Happy We [no note]
    • aka Oh Happy We [no note]
  • Wedding Chorale
  • Battle Music
  • Candide Begins His Travels
  • It Must Be So
    • aka Candide's Meditation [no note]
    • aka Song: It Must Be So [no note]
  • Lisbon Sequence
    • aka The Lisbon Sequence [no note]
  • Earthquake Music
  • It Must Be Me
    • aka Candide's Second Meditation [no note]
    • aka Song: It Must Be Me [no note]
  • Mazurka
    • aka Governor's Waltz [no note]
    • aka Paris Waltz [no note]
    • aka The Governor's Waltz [no note]
    • aka The Paris Waltz [no note]
  • Glitter and Be Gay
    • aka Aria: Glitter and Be Gay [no note]
  • You Were Dead, You Know
    • aka Duet: You Were Dead, You Know [no note]
  • Pilgrims' Procession
    • aka Ensemble: Pilgrims Procession [Title used in 1959 London production]
    • aka The Pilgrims' Procession [no note]
    • aka The Pilgrims' Procession/Alleluia [no note]
  • My Love
    • aka My Love (Governor's Serenade) [no note]
    • aka Serenade: My Love [no note]
  • I Am Easily Assimilated
    • aka Buenos Aires (Tango) [Title on early sheet music]
    • aka Easily Assimilated [Title in 1988 Old Vic production]
    • aka Tango: I Am Easily Assimilated [no note]
    • aka Tus Labios Rubi [Title in some programs for the Boston tryout]
  • Quartet Finale
    • aka The Quartet Finale [no note]
  • Quiet
    • aka Trio: Quiet [no note]
  • Candide's Return from Eldorado
    • aka Introduction to Eldorado [no note]
  • Eldorado
    • aka Ballad of Eldorado [no note]
    • aka Ballad: Eldorado [no note]
    • aka The Ballad of El Dorado [no note]
    • aka The Ballad of Eldorado [no note]
  • Bon Voyage
    • aka Schottische: Bon Voyage [no note]
  • Raft Sequence
    • aka Voyage to Venice [no note]
  • Venice Gambling Scene
    • aka Money, Money [no note]
    • aka Money, Money, Money [no note]
  • What's the Use?
    • aka Pass It Along [Title in 1988 Old Vic production]
    • aka Waltz: What's the Use? [no note]
    • aka What's the Use [no note]
  • Gavotte
    • aka Duet: I've Got Troubles [Title used in 1959 London production]
    • aka I've Got Troubles [no note]
    • aka The Venice Gavotte [no note]
    • aka Venice Gavotte [no note]
  • Return to Westphalia
  • Finale: Make Our Garden Grow
    • aka Make Our Garden Grow [no note]

Cut during Boston tryout

Cut prior to Broadway

Added to 1959 London production

  • We Are Women
    • aka Duet: We Are Women [Title used in 1959 London production]

Added to 1966 revival

Added to 1968 revival

Added to 1971 revival

  • Words, Words, Words
    • aka Laughing Song [no note]
    • aka Martin's Laughing Song [no note]
    • aka The Worst of All Possible Worlds [no note]
  • The Kings' Barcarolle
    • aka Barcarolle: The Simple Life [no note]
    • aka King's Barcarolle [Title in program for 1999 National Theatre production in London]
    • aka The King's Barcarolle [Title used on cast recording of the Royal National production.]

Added to 1973 revival

  • Life Is Happiness Indeed
    • aka Life Is Happiness Unending [Title used on cast recording of the Royal National production for the final part of the number.]
  • O Miserere
  • Auto-da-fé (What a Day!)
    • aka Auto da Fe (What a Day) [no note]
    • aka Auto da fe (What a Day) [no note]
    • aka Auto-da-Fe [no note]
    • aka Auto-da-fé [no note]
    • aka Oh What a Day for a Holiday [Title used in 1959 London production]
    • aka What a Day [no note]
  • This World
    • aka Candide's Lament (This World) [no note]
  • Barcarolle (Upon a Ship at Sea)
    • aka Barcarolle [no note]
    • aka The Old Lady's Tale (Barcarolle) [no note]
  • Alleluia
  • Sheep's Song
    • aka Sheep Song [no note]
    • aka The Sheep's Song [no note]

Added to 1982 revival

Added to 1988 Scottish Opera revival

Added to 1999 Royal National version

Added to later productions

Studio Cast Recordings

No studio cast recordings listed.

Demos & Pre-Production Recordings

  • No demo recordings listed yet.

Authors

Original Authors

...
Book
...
Lyrics
...
Music
...
Additional Lyrics
...
Source Material

Later Contributors

This list represents writers who contributed to revisions, etc. following the original production.

...
Book: Concert Adaptation
...
Book Revisions
...
Book Revisions
...
Book Adaptation
...
Book
...
Adaptation
...
Book: New Version
...
Book: New Adaptation
...
Additional Lyrics
Genre: Operetta

Source

Based on the 1759 satirical novel Candide by Voltaire

Synopsis

No synopsis listed.

Trivia & History

Following the Broadway run the show was revised by Michael Stewart for a 1958 tour and again for its London premiere in 1959. This was followed by a production at the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1966 and a Chicago concert version, revised and directed by Sheldon Patinkin. This led to a 1968 concert performance in New York at Philharmonic Hall (later Avery Fisher Hall) to celebrate Leonard Bernstein's fiftieth birthday. The success of the latter led to a full-scale production in the summer of 1971. This version opened in San Francisco at the Curran Theatre, moved to Los Angeles and then to Washington, DC, where it was the first musical to play the Opera House at Kennedy Center. It closed there without reaching New York.

This show was again revived in 1973 at the Chelsea Theatre Center in Brooklyn in 1973 with a new book by Hugh Wheeler for a six-week run. It later transferred to Broadway. This version moved closer to Voltaire's novella, sometimes out of necessity as Lillian Hellman forbade the use of any situations and plot elements in her book that were not in Voltaire. Several new lyrics by Stephen Sondheim were added for this revival.

Revived in 1982 in an opera house version by the New York City Opera. This version was based on the Hugh Wheeler book. In 1988 Leonard Bernstein became involved for the first time since the original version to present a 'final' operatic edition. This version was revised by John Wells and John Mauceri and, working with Bernstein, several numbers were restored. The book was credited to Hugh Wheeler, with the further credit ”Adapted for Scottish Opera by John Wells and John Mauceri,” but much of the book was new, returning even further to Voltaire than Wheeler's book had, while also restoring a few aspects of the 1956 book (but no dialogue from that book). The world premiere of this version, produced by the Scottish Opera, took place in Glasgow in 1988. A concert version of this edition, with Leonard Bernstein conducting the show for the first time, was televised and issued on CD (recorced live, but the recording may be taken party from rehearsals).

It was revived again on Broadway in 1997. This production was close to the New York City Opera version, but with some further changes.

In 1999, the Royal National Theatre in London presented an extensively reworked version with a book by John Caird that featured still more new lyrics, this time by Richard Wilbur.

In 2010, the Goodman Theatre of Chicago and the Shakespeare Theatre Comany of Washington, D.C. produced a new version, revised and directed by Mary Zimmerman which played in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Boston.

Other Titles

    No additional titles listed.

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