Following the Broadway run the show was revised by Michael Stewart for a 1958 tour and again for its London premiere in 1959. This was followed by a production at the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1966 and a Chicago concert version, revised and directed by Sheldon Patinkin. This led to a 1968 concert performance in New York at Philharmonic Hall (later Avery Fisher Hall) to celebrate Leonard Bernstein's fiftieth birthday. The success of the latter led to a full-scale production in the summer of 1971. This version opened in San Francisco at the Curran Theatre, moved to Los Angeles and then to Washington, DC, where it was the first musical to play the Opera House at Kennedy Center. It closed there without reaching New York.
This show was again revived in 1973 at the Chelsea Theatre Center in Brooklyn in 1973 with a new book by Hugh Wheeler for a six-week run. It later transferred to Broadway. This version moved closer to Voltaire's novella, sometimes out of necessity as Lillian Hellman forbade the use of any situations and plot elements in her book that were not in Voltaire. Several new lyrics by Stephen Sondheim were added for this revival.
Revived in 1982 in an opera house version by the New York City Opera. This version was based on the Hugh Wheeler book. In 1988 Leonard Bernstein became involved for the first time since the original version to present a 'final' operatic edition. This version was revised by John Wells and John Mauceri and, working with Bernstein, several numbers were restored. The book was credited to Hugh Wheeler, with the further credit ”Adapted for Scottish Opera by John Wells and John Mauceri,” but much of the book was new, returning even further to Voltaire than Wheeler's book had, while also restoring a few aspects of the 1956 book (but no dialogue from that book). The world premiere of this version, produced by the Scottish Opera, took place in Glasgow in 1988. A concert version of this edition, with Leonard Bernstein conducting the show for the first time, was televised and issued on CD (recorced live, but the recording may be taken party from rehearsals).
It was revived again on Broadway in 1997. This production was close to the New York City Opera version, but with some further changes.
In 1999, the Royal National Theatre in London presented an extensively reworked version with a book by John Caird that featured still more new lyrics, this time by Richard Wilbur.
In 2010, the Goodman Theatre of Chicago and the Shakespeare Theatre Comany of Washington, D.C. produced a new version, revised and directed by Mary Zimmerman which played in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Boston.